Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.
Link for Paper: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6258/313.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Date of Publication: 16 Oct 2015
As we can see now the term and challenges inside the biology is turning everyday but beside that scholar around the world engage in it. One of the classic work by Denise Morais, Timothy W Hand and his colleagues NIH bethesda Maryland USA, 2015. Most interesting in this paper is; Video of Work introduction, so please watch if you are interested in cell-cell interactions at the time of infection.
Infections have been proposed as initiating factors for inflammatory disorders; however, identifying associations between defined infectious agents and the initiation of chronic disease has remained elusive. Here, we report that a single acute infection can have dramatic and long-term consequences for tissue-specific immunity. Following clearance of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, sustained inflammation and associated lymphatic leakage in the mesenteric adipose tissue deviates migratory dendritic cells to the adipose compartment, thereby preventing their accumulation in the mesenteric lymph node. As a consequence, canonical mucosal immune functions, including tolerance and protective immunity, are persistently compromised. Post-resolution of infection, signals derived from the microbiota maintain inflammatory mesentery remodeling and consequently, transient ablation of the microbiota restores mucosal immunity. Our results indicate that persistent disruption of communication between tissues and the immune system following clearance of an acute infection represents an inflection point beyond which tissue homeostasis and immunity is compromised for the long-term.
link for this paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867415010442
Classic article on Nature…
Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells
Abstract of this paper:
Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality1. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by rare tumour cells with unique properties, which may function like stem cells in their ability to initiate and propagate metastatic tumours2, 3, 4, 5. However, the identity of metastasis-initiating cells in human breast cancer remains elusive, and whether metastases are hierarchically organized is unknown2. Here we show at the single-cell level that early stage metastatic cells possess a distinct stem-like gene expression signature. To identify and isolate metastatic cells from patient-derived xenograft models of human breast cancer, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay, which allowed us to enumerate metastatic cells in mouse peripheral tissues. We compared gene signatures in metastatic cells from tissues with low versus high metastatic burden. Metastatic cells from low-burden tissues were distinct owing to their increased expression of stem cell, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, pro-survival, and dormancy-associated genes. By contrast, metastatic cells from high-burden tissues were similar to primary tumour cells, which were more heterogeneous and expressed higher levels of luminal differentiation genes. Transplantation of stem-like metastatic cells from low-burden tissues showed that they have considerable tumour-initiating capacity, and can differentiate to produce luminal-like cancer cells. Progression to high metastatic burden was associated with increased proliferation and MYC expression, which could be attenuated by treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. These findings support a hierarchical model for metastasis, in which metastases are initiated by stem-like cells that proliferate and differentiate to produce advanced metastatic disease.
I am writing a book on applied biosystem & Interdisciplinary sciences and I would like to include your suggestions and efforts. Please rise the general FAQs and curiosity towards Bio-System, it will update your knowledge and my personal opinion.Your profound idea and terminology will help me out for this literature.
As we can see now a drastic change in the world because of non-renewal resources of energy and fuel. A Worldwide demand of fossil fuels and it’s harmful effect on environment makes it unfit to the health and society, but we are optless. Henceforth there is strong demand of new sources of energy, livestock could be the better option. We are much advance and successful now in the state of applied system and interdisciplinary sciences. Now we can build up a new area of science and technology; which will provide better option for upcoming near future, and this option is nothing but Hybrid Bio-System. Bio-machine is an ancient form of technology used by humans, in which they use human and animal efforts in area of work and energy. So it’s basically a transfusion between living system and technology.
A precise possibility, theoretical approach and exploration is going to introduce in my book ” Bio-Machine a Future of Technology”, so please make it success with your scientific notation and guidance. I welcome you all innovative creative scientific minds around the world.
Please make it success……..
We are enjoying the world which is surrounding us but beyond that is another life and that is nothing but your spirit, your passion and your social contribution. Some beings around the world is enjoying that and francis is one of them. This art is awarded with best art of this week.
Blade Runner by Francesco Francavilla