Ancestry of Antibiotcs: An overview

Antibiotics are classified based on their chemical structure and mode of action. A similar level of effectiveness, toxicity and side-effects is rendered by the antibiotics of same structural group. Broad spectrum antibiotics are effective against a broad range of microorganisms in comparison to narrow spectrum antibiotics. Bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria whereas bacteriostatic antibiotics halt the growth of bacteria. A very interesting post by Fabio Cacchiata in which he classified antibiotics in a very nice way with full of details.

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How Do Antibiotics Work?

Various types of antibiotics work in either of the following two ways (as mentioned in the above image):

  1. A Bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria generally by either interfering with the formation of the bacterium’s cell wall or its cell contents.Penicillin, daptomycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole are some example of Bactericidal antibiotics.
  2. A Bacteriostatic antibiotic stops bacteria from multiplying by interfering with bacterial protein production, DNA replication, or other aspects of bacterial cellular metabolism.Some Bacteriostatic antibiotics are tetracyclines, sulphonamides, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, macrolides and lincosamides.

Prof of concept for my Hypothesis called ” Theory of Transformation : Origin of Universe”

How universe originate and what is the actual mechanism of operation, is always been a curiosity to our astrophysicist and space research organizations. When we look towards  sky its seems like unravel mystery but our thousand years of expertise comes closer to their solution or key point but in reality their is no such kind of key/pin point like solar system. There are uncountable number of solar system in one galaxy and same case with galaxy viz multiples of trillions. May be billions of universe are there where we can’t imagine as far. Therefore fact could be anything but as per our basic understanding and space observation clearing some picture about this mystery. Before Galileo few India hieroglyphs and corpus indicates some astronomic event of ancient times and help us to know more deeply about astronomy.

As human brain we have only inbound imagination power, even we can’t think about anything which we have never experience. In most of the normal human beings have very limited recognition ability but few exception are also there who have experienced not so big but reproduce greatest discovery and we called them father of science for their unexpected contribution to our scientific community. In same situation our astronomy is oscillating because its not like biological experimentation, neither its  laboratory based exploration. This area of science was evolved purely  on physio-chemical based languidly event over the time period. If we compare our own evolution with universe means we are at zero position where it stands.

Based on complex picture of universe and galaxy, my observation was very clear about the origin of universe and i was very near to the announcement but due to few circumstances i was not able to publish it earlier. A detailed hypothetical mechanism for origin of universe is somehow as i proposed below :

 

1. Stage of numeration:

As we all are aware about every process start with something and it cannot start with zero like “Omnis cellula e cellula” (a cell arise from pre existing cell)  a great concept by Rudolf Virchow for cellular reproduction. Same way universe was not originated with zero. There was something called  vacuum and pressure less situation, was present. At the time round and because of attractive behavior of  PRATHMIK  particles get collapsed and start becoming hotter in low pressure and vaccum condition.  Which arises a spinning of air  (AC; Astro Cyclone) and particle which were present at that time start collecting into the center of the AC,  same kind of situation we can observe in summer where high temperature caused low pressure and ultimately small cyclone which have a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. They are usually characterized by inward spiraling winds. Same  way the first beginning of universe was started and still is on his developing path.

2. Universal Expansion :

 

Now our first question about how it start?,  is must be clear. Now we can think;  how it regulates and what contribution makes their infinity look. For that scenario a very interesting fact is available and we all are aware about it. We all know that universe has ZERO gravity and its nothing but vacuum so once a ASTRO Cyclone initialize in the universe can never stop due to low pressure and zero gravity condition. Such astronomical story remain continued and only ends when its looses their center because of two reason:

  1. Overlapping with another AC boundary
  2. High mass volume collection at the center than the actual size of AC

Above mentioned these two situation are most effective condition which can influence the universal expansion and reduction but their may be other situation also which are taking part in astronomical happening.

Many astrophysicists have been postulated that universe is expanding, even our solar system is also expanding but fact is; our solar system is reducing and his Astro Cyclone too , which is basically operates the entire solar system so if  we can identify life on mars that will be a prof of my concept that our solar system is going to destroy in coming future. Because life shifted from mars to earth as picture proposed below.

Image result for solar system

 

3. Why any solar system reduced or expand ?

Now we are aware about how universal happening start and operate so your next curiosity will be; why one solar system reducing and another are getting expand. But answer of this question is very simple. Very philosophical but scientific quote  “a feeble lost inside well built” this concept is so simple and applicable under every situation. It clearly says that low capacity AC when comes to strong one that ultimately lead for losing of their natural  behavior and merging with stronger ones.

4. How solar system operate ?

Suppose if one smaller AC comes inside the stronger one then it suddenly cannot merge with them, its takes trillions years of time and that exactly create solar system. one of the solar system is their example where we belongs; our solar system.

5. How Stars originate ?

As previously described how solar system formed was quite noise-full. Therefore now we will try to find out some most generous example with appropriate findings. In 2014 a famous article was published in Science News by Christopher Crockket titled ” Star Eating Star Spotted”. In which they try to explain that a star in a neighboring galaxy might have swallowed another star. That exactly what my hypothesis was explained. Same situation apply for every unravel mystery in universe either that is matter of low gravity, white giant, super giant or hyper giant my hypothesis is applicable everywhere and with every astronomical mass which is present in the universe.

Fig: 3 – the star HV 2112 appears to be a red supergiant that has engulfed a neutron star

Validation prof for universal expansion : Must watch the link provided below:

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Conclusion: 

Now you are most probably aware about my basic finding of my work “Theory of Transformation: Origin of Universe” so further story and action taken by me will comes to you as noble concept for astrophysicist lovers. Wait for Next phase of this article.

Lamarckism Vs Epigentics : Epigenetics is a Baseline of Acquired Genetic Inheritance

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck is the father of Epigenetics
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“Lamarck was the first man whose conclusions on the subject excited much attention. “This justly celebrated naturalist first published his views in 1801. . . he first did the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability of all changes in the organic, as well as in the inorganic world, being the result of law, and not of miraculous interpretation”.
                                                                                 By: Charles Darwin (1861)

Currently, Most of the biologist around the world are working on epigenetics and epigenetic changes with their curiosity and scientific aspects. In short, we can say this area of scientific interest is very hot and dynamic for molecular and Cancer biologist. But it’s amazed when i go much deeper into this prominent area of biological research. This concept is nothing but much artistic and scientific spangle of Lamark theory of Acquired Genetic Inheritance. Epigenetics is gaining much more attention because of ongoing technological development and need of the social health. We are searching a hope with the help of epigenetics but it is just a baseline for entire inheritable or phenotypic attribute. No doubt, there is a potential possibility for all scientific resolution which we are expecting from epigenetic research. But we should not forget to align lamark into this because once we put the lamark theory with epigenetics all major hurdle associated with epigentics will be short out. However, this theory of Acquired Genetic Inheritance is wide level explanation of epigentics itself.

 Lamarck theory was ignored because of following reasons:

  • Use and Disuse
  • Transmission of acquired characteristics
  • Increasing complexity
  • No extinction

But in reality, what Lamarck actually believed was more tangled: organisms are not actively altered by their environment, as his colleague Geoffroy Saint Hilaire believed. Instead, a change in the environment causes changes in the needs of organisms living in that environment, which in turn causes changes in their behaviour. Altered behaviour causes greater or lesser use of a given structure or organ; use would cause the structure to increase in size over several generations, whereas disuse leads to shrink or even disappear. This rule that use or disuse causes structures to enlarge or shrink — Lamarck called the “First Law” in his book Philosophie zoologique. Lamarck’s “Second Law” stated that all such changes were heritable. The result of these laws was the continuous and gradual change of all organisms, as they became adapted to their environments.

Now you we should try to correlate lamark’s first and Second law with epigenetical modification at molecular level. According to the definition of Epigentics “stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence is termed as epigenetical modification” it was firstly coined at a Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 2008.

Nowadays, epigenetic researchers are failing to explain trans-generational epigenetic inheritance which includes:

  • Homogenized parental traits vs. particulate inheritance
  • Inheritance of innate vs. acquired characteristics
  • origin of epigenetics and modification into molecular synthesis

According to Dr, Snait Gissis and Dr. Eva Jablonka; Lamarckism has potential to transform modern biology.  As epigenetics is widely accepted research area for scientific community but with help of Lamarckism it can transform into cutting-edge research.

 

 Conclusion:

Can you imagine, Lamarck published Philosophie zoologique, the first comprehensive and systematic theory of biological evolution in 1809 the year of Charles Darwin’s birth without knowing the potential of his work after 200 years? Scientific community at that time was completely unknown even about the term “Gene” and that time he explained the notable snap of evolution without knowing Gene, allele, DNA and chromosomes but his scientific notch of evolution is adorable.

This theory has a broad level explanation about all the major aspect of epigenetic and cellular dynamism and metabolism. At the glance of epigenetical research we will be familiar with the Lamarck hypothesis again. This theory is nothing but a well comprehensive scientific explanation for ongoing epigentic experimentation.

 

Today we are awaking our biological Father but these are The Fathers of Biology, who gives a different identity to the Biology

Despite of their emerging restriction they challenge the equilibrium and finally got their place where they belongs.

Fathers of Different Fields of Biology
1. Father of Concept of Evolution – Empedocles (495-425 B.C.)
2. Father of Medicine – Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.)
3. Father of Biology, Embryology and Zoology – Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
4. Father of Botany and Ecology – Theophrastus (370-287 B.C.)
5. Father of Anatomy – Andreas Vesalius (1514 -1564)
6. Father of Comparative Anatomy – George Cuvier (1769-1832)
7. Father of Microscopic Anatomy – Morcello Malpighi (1628-1694)
8. Father of Plant Anatomy – N. Grew (1641-1712)
9. Father/Founder of Histology – Francois Bichat (1717-1802)
10. Father of Microscopy – Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
11. Father of Cytology – Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
12. Father of Modern Cytology – Swanson
13. Father of Taxonomy & Nomenclature – Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
14. Founder of Embryology – C.F. Wolff (1738-1794)
15. Father of Modern Embryology – Von Baer (1792-1876)
16. Father of Immunology – Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
17. Father of Epidemiology – John Snow
18. Father of Biochemistry – Liebig
19. Father of Plant Physiology – Stephen Hales (1677-1761)
20. Father of Experimental Physiology – Galen
21. Father of Mycology – Micheli
22. Father of Bryology – Hedwig
23. Father of Plant Pathology – de Bary
24. Father of Modern Surgery – Pare.
25. Father of Parasitology – Platter.
26. Father of ATP Cycle – Lipmann.
27. Father of Antiseptic Surgery – Joseph Lister.
28. Father of Bacteriology – Koch
29. Father of Microbiology – Pasteur
30. Father of Palynology – Erdtman.
31. Father of Endocrinology – Thomas Addison
32. Father of Stress Physiology – Hans Selye
33. Father of Conditioned Reflexes- Pavlov.
34. Father of ECG – Einthoven
35. Father of Gerontology – Korenchevsk
36. Father of Palaeontology – Leonardo da Vinci
37. Father of Modern Palaeontology – Cuvier
38. Father of Ethology – Konrad Lorentz
39. Father of Antibiotics – Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)
40. Father of Blood Circulation – William Harvey (1578-1657)
41. Father of Blood Groups – Landsteiner
42. Father of Chemotheraphy – Paul Ehlrich
43. Father of Green Revolution – Norman E. Borlaug
44. Father of Indian Green Revolution – M.S. Swaninathan
45. Father of Tissue Culture – Harrison
46. Father of Parasitology – Platter
47. Birdman of India – Salim Ali
48. Father of Indian Palaeobotany – Birbal Sahni
49. Father of Radiation Biology – Muller
50. Father of Gene Therapy – Anderson
51. Father of Genetics – Gregor Johann Mendel
52. Father of Modern Genetics – Bateson
53. Father of Polygenic Inheritance- Kolreuter.
54. Father of Eugenics – Francis Galton
55. Father of Biochemical/Human Genetics – Archibald Garrod
56. Father of Experimental Genetics – T.H. Morgan
57. Father of Genetic Engineering – Paul Berg
58. Father of DNA Printing – Alee Jeffreys
59. Father of Modern Botany – K. Bauhin (1560-1624)
60. Father of Virology – Stanley
61. Father of Chromatography – Michael Tswett

Anticipation of Darwin’s Theory “Natural Selection will Destroy us” by Cristein De Duve

Do You really think that natural selection has worked against us?.

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yes It could be, as our nudity increasing towards natural resources, living beings and social norms so we are not so far from extinction. It would like healing of any chronic injury inside the body and that is eradicating by gradual provoke. Natural selection has resulted in traits such as group selfishness being coded in our genes. These were useful to our ancestors under the conditions in which they lived, but have become noxious to us today. What would help us preserve our natural resources are genetic traits that let us sacrifice the present for the sake of the future. You need wisdom to sacrifice something that is immediately useful or advantageous for the sake of something that will be important in the future. Natural selection doesn’t do that; it looks only at what is happening today. It doesn’t care about your grandchildren or grandchildren’s grandchildren.

Nature selects only those candidates which are suitable for their equilibrium balance and eliminate them who are trying for there equilibrium imbalance, and now we are on that stage only.   According to Nobel laureate Cristein De Duve ” We have evolved traits that will lead to humanity’s extinction“. Now natural selection is recruiting for extinction rather than selection. We are accumulating regressive traits rather than evolutionary. The cost of our success is the exhaustion of natural resources, leading to energy crises, climate change, pollution and the destruction of our habitat. If you exhaust natural resources there will be nothing left for your children. If we continue in the same direction, humankind is headed for some frightful ordeals, if not extinction. Such kind of anthropogenic activity will Ultimately turn us towards destruction and that is the site where Darwin’s Theory terminates and Cristein D Dive starts Natural Selection will destroy Us.

Any possible bypass for Humankind?

No, I think not yet. In subsequent manner we can control on destruction rate but can not control over the Natural Negative selection. we are sick and opt-less regarding our requirements, Demands and exhaustion of renewal and non-renewal energy resources. we can not completely control over them because we are now epidemic of Homo sapiens. Bus there is a little bit chance to overcome such kind of problems.

We should explore some other area of resources, Energy requirements and should strong control over our birth rate. If we are doing fail thats mean we are going under Cristein De Duve Theory of Destruction.

Innovation beyond the Memory

Does Science really need good memory rather than good analyzing capability??. No nothing like that as my point of view. whatever your opinion or concern but fact is : innovation is out of the knowledge and memory add-on. There is strong demand of fresh and exploring brain instead of forbidden husk. scientific exploration always deal with matter of exclusively new approach. Limitation always reserve the area research instead of dynamic work, so its good to judge a student on the basis of analyzing and problem solving capability. Einstein, newton H.Khorana and J.C bose are known for their contribution rather than good scholar.What-is-the-point-of-innovation-Mind-Map

So there is strong demand to change and manipulation in our Education system. A student who have capability to create new things should appreciated rather than demotivation. A strong competitive environment can squash out the exploring capability, It will also turn the brain in state of grasping the resources rather than creating new things.

There should be following things :

  1. Open Channel for selection; based on scientific approach
  2. Reviewing Passion and involvement in art of Science
  3. Test for Strong motivation towards work and Skill
  4. Test for Troubleshoot and analyzing capability
  5. Test for Good scientific communicator
  6. Test for Scholar is good socialistic person or not
  7. A good financial support

Few questions which can make your carrier….

I think everyone must have faced the Interview during their school, college or at the time of employment. This is the moment which can stand your potential to the interviewer, it makes your opinion effective and powerful. Interviewer wants to expose your personality for their prospective need.Therefore, Individuals who are going through this session must keep normal breathing and calm brain because certain competition environment during interview session can cause severe stress and hopeless conditions. So please ignore the environmental stress and try to move out from others reviews about query. Be confident and try to relate your carrier with your seeking choice, answer each and every question with your presence of mind and with full of heart. Interview is just like a conversation in which you have to introduce yourself, justify your points and put your value in interviewer mind, than he would be eager to say: You have been selected and welcome to the BLA group. here I am putting some general questions, which are commonly asked by interviewer.

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Another membrane protein is going to add in cell biology with complete Mechanism.

Finally Sweet transport complex has been revealed in Eukaryotes (Arobdopsis thaliana & other system).This complex is Homotrimeric Complex.

Work were carried out by yoyong Tao Lily S. Cheung and his colleagues at Department of Molecular and cellular Physiology, Stanford University.

Abstract :

Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythiuminfection. Here we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Insights into the structure–function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.

Link of Paper: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature15391.html#author-information

Things keep on changing but this is Amazing, in fact completely exploratory work by Benzamin C.K & his colleagues at Stanford university.

Abstract:

Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.

Link for Paper: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6258/313.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr

Date of Publication: 16 Oct 2015