Does Science really need good memory rather than good analyzing capability??. No nothing like that as my point of view. whatever your opinion or concern but fact is : innovation is out of the knowledge and memory add-on. There is strong demand of fresh and exploring brain instead of forbidden husk. scientific exploration always deal with matter of exclusively new approach. Limitation always reserve the area research instead of dynamic work, so its good to judge a student on the basis of analyzing and problem solving capability. Einstein, newton H.Khorana and J.C bose are known for their contribution rather than good scholar.
So there is strong demand to change and manipulation in our Education system. A student who have capability to create new things should appreciated rather than demotivation. A strong competitive environment can squash out the exploring capability, It will also turn the brain in state of grasping the resources rather than creating new things.
There should be following things :
- Open Channel for selection; based on scientific approach
- Reviewing Passion and involvement in art of Science
- Test for Strong motivation towards work and Skill
- Test for Troubleshoot and analyzing capability
- Test for Good scientific communicator
- Test for Scholar is good socialistic person or not
- A good financial support
I think everyone must have faced the Interview during their school, college or at the time of employment. This is the moment which can stand your potential to the interviewer, it makes your opinion effective and powerful. Interviewer wants to expose your personality for their prospective need.Therefore, Individuals who are going through this session must keep normal breathing and calm brain because certain competition environment during interview session can cause severe stress and hopeless conditions. So please ignore the environmental stress and try to move out from others reviews about query. Be confident and try to relate your carrier with your seeking choice, answer each and every question with your presence of mind and with full of heart. Interview is just like a conversation in which you have to introduce yourself, justify your points and put your value in interviewer mind, than he would be eager to say: You have been selected and welcome to the BLA group. here I am putting some general questions, which are commonly asked by interviewer.
Finally Sweet transport complex has been revealed in Eukaryotes (Arobdopsis thaliana & other system).This complex is Homotrimeric Complex.
Work were carried out by yoyong Tao Lily S. Cheung and his colleagues at Department of Molecular and cellular Physiology, Stanford University.
Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythiuminfection. Here we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Insights into the structure–function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux.
Link of Paper: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature15391.html#author-information
Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.
Link for Paper: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6258/313.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Date of Publication: 16 Oct 2015
As we can see now the term and challenges inside the biology is turning everyday but beside that scholar around the world engage in it. One of the classic work by Denise Morais, Timothy W Hand and his colleagues NIH bethesda Maryland USA, 2015. Most interesting in this paper is; Video of Work introduction, so please watch if you are interested in cell-cell interactions at the time of infection.
Infections have been proposed as initiating factors for inflammatory disorders; however, identifying associations between defined infectious agents and the initiation of chronic disease has remained elusive. Here, we report that a single acute infection can have dramatic and long-term consequences for tissue-specific immunity. Following clearance of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, sustained inflammation and associated lymphatic leakage in the mesenteric adipose tissue deviates migratory dendritic cells to the adipose compartment, thereby preventing their accumulation in the mesenteric lymph node. As a consequence, canonical mucosal immune functions, including tolerance and protective immunity, are persistently compromised. Post-resolution of infection, signals derived from the microbiota maintain inflammatory mesentery remodeling and consequently, transient ablation of the microbiota restores mucosal immunity. Our results indicate that persistent disruption of communication between tissues and the immune system following clearance of an acute infection represents an inflection point beyond which tissue homeostasis and immunity is compromised for the long-term.
link for this paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867415010442
Classic article on Nature…
Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells
Abstract of this paper:
Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality1. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by rare tumour cells with unique properties, which may function like stem cells in their ability to initiate and propagate metastatic tumours2, 3, 4, 5. However, the identity of metastasis-initiating cells in human breast cancer remains elusive, and whether metastases are hierarchically organized is unknown2. Here we show at the single-cell level that early stage metastatic cells possess a distinct stem-like gene expression signature. To identify and isolate metastatic cells from patient-derived xenograft models of human breast cancer, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay, which allowed us to enumerate metastatic cells in mouse peripheral tissues. We compared gene signatures in metastatic cells from tissues with low versus high metastatic burden. Metastatic cells from low-burden tissues were distinct owing to their increased expression of stem cell, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, pro-survival, and dormancy-associated genes. By contrast, metastatic cells from high-burden tissues were similar to primary tumour cells, which were more heterogeneous and expressed higher levels of luminal differentiation genes. Transplantation of stem-like metastatic cells from low-burden tissues showed that they have considerable tumour-initiating capacity, and can differentiate to produce luminal-like cancer cells. Progression to high metastatic burden was associated with increased proliferation and MYC expression, which could be attenuated by treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. These findings support a hierarchical model for metastasis, in which metastases are initiated by stem-like cells that proliferate and differentiate to produce advanced metastatic disease.
I am writing a book on applied biosystem & Interdisciplinary sciences and I would like to include your suggestions and efforts. Please rise the general FAQs and curiosity towards Bio-System, it will update your knowledge and my personal opinion.Your profound idea and terminology will help me out for this literature.
As we can see now a drastic change in the world because of non-renewal resources of energy and fuel. A Worldwide demand of fossil fuels and it’s harmful effect on environment makes it unfit to the health and society, but we are optless. Henceforth there is strong demand of new sources of energy, livestock could be the better option. We are much advance and successful now in the state of applied system and interdisciplinary sciences. Now we can build up a new area of science and technology; which will provide better option for upcoming near future, and this option is nothing but Hybrid Bio-System. Bio-machine is an ancient form of technology used by humans, in which they use human and animal efforts in area of work and energy. So it’s basically a transfusion between living system and technology.
A precise possibility, theoretical approach and exploration is going to introduce in my book ” Bio-Machine a Future of Technology”, so please make it success with your scientific notation and guidance. I welcome you all innovative creative scientific minds around the world.
Please make it success……..
We are enjoying the world which is surrounding us but beyond that is another life and that is nothing but your spirit, your passion and your social contribution. Some beings around the world is enjoying that and francis is one of them. This art is awarded with best art of this week.
Blade Runner by Francesco Francavilla